The 16th Amendment of the U.S. Constition.

           The 16th Amendment passed Congress on July 2, 1909, ratified on February 3, 1913. Article 1, section 9 of the Constitution was modified by the 16th Amendment. It goes as follows;
       The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

                  Basically it says that it is up to Congress to set the amount of taxes and collect them. How the money that is taxed is made does not matter. It will not be split up between the states and the census and amountvof people will have zero effect on how the tax system works.

That sentence holds a small bit of information about an extremely large issue. Tax Reform, how should it be done? As I stated above Congress has the power to set the tax levels. They are responsible for the revenue that keeps our country running. There is no mention of lobbyist or outside groups in the 16th Amendment. Nor is there a mention of outside groups helping to set the tax levels. I also didnt see any mention that Congress had the right to take an anti-tax pledge with a lobbyist. So Grover Norquist anti-tax pledge means nothing.

We have established that the Republican trickle down economy doesn’t work. In fact ot has horrible economic consequences, look at the state we were in 2008. We were hemorrhaging jobs, the housing market crashed, Stock market was trashed and banks were going belly up at an alarming rate. We can also agree that austerity doesn’t work. Look at Europe and look at how the Sequester slowed job growth. Obviously you cannot cut your way to prosperity.

If there are any millionaires out there who made their millions solely by cutting spending please speak up. What us needed is a balanced aporoach. Yes we should make cuts, but a least dollar for dollar with tax increases. Right now it us about 6 dollard spending cut to 1 dollar in tax increase. That will not get us where we need to be. Unfortunately Republicans will cut off their nose to spite their face. They cannot see logic because of their vile hatred for President Obama.

Apple recently was in the news for Tax Avoidance. That was $6-$9 billion in taxes that wasn’t collected. In 2010 GE did not pay a single dollar in taxes, I paid more that GE. How many more companies are doing this? How many billions of dollars in tax revenue are not collected because Republicans do not wantva fairer tax code? The extreme Republicans, Tea party members want to abolish the IRS and pay little or nothing in taxes. Our founding fathers knew taxes were essential, why don’t Republicans?

President Obama’s agenda is working. We are digging out of the recession despite Republican obstruction. The stock market and housing market are both recovering. Our debt ceiling crisis has been pushed back by several months by his measures. Imagine where we would be with Republican help. Unfortunately all they have to offer is vitriol.

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Our Constitution, a fluid document that is difficult to change.

                 The Constitution of the U.S. is a fluid document. It helped set up a Democratic government, elections, freedom of religion and speech. When it first began African-Americans were only counted as 3/5s of a person. It was essentially legalizing slavery. Yes our Constitution essentially made slavery legal. That is why we needed an amendment to make slavery illegal.

I am not a Constitutional professor or lawyer, nor do I claim to know all things about the Constitution. But after years of hearing Republicans link the Free Market and Capitalism to the Constitution, I had to see for myself. Not anywhere in the Constitution are either mentioned. I find that a bit odd, Republicans and the Tea Party claim they are the ardent protectors of the Constitution, yet they don’t know what is in it.

The Constitution states that Federal Law is the law of the land. Federal Law supersedes all state laws. Yet Republicans tout Nullification, the states ability to ignore a Federal Law. Nullification was ruled illegal by the U.S. Supreme Court, thereby ending all argument. But this is another case of Republicans picking and choosing which parts of the Constitution they want to follow. If Republicans had their way there would be 50 different countries. They want to take all power away from the Federal Government.

So again Republicans are on the wrong side of not just the argument, but the Constitution. It seems to me that Democrats are protecting our Constitutional Rights. Why would Republicans want new Voter Laws? The Voter Fraud in those cases are barely existent. President Obama is called a Marxist and a Socialist yet he is protecting our rights. The Republicabs use the projection method, they project what they are doing on to others to pass the blame. But keep on trying to blame others for the problems they created.

How to amend the Constitution.

             Proposing an amendment can be done by Congrees or states. Both houses of Congress must propose the amendment by a 2/3 vote. These is how current amendments have been offered. 2/3 of the states legislatures must call on Congress to have a Constitutional Convention. Regardless of how any amendment is proposed, it must be ratified by the states. 3/4 of the states legislatures must approve of amendment proposed by congress. 3/4 of the states must approve the ratifying convention. This method was used once to repeal prohibition (21st amendment). Since the 18th amendment Congress has set a term of 7 years for ratification. Only 33 amendments recieved 2/3 vote from both houses. Only 27 have been ratified.

                Of the 6 amendments not ratified 4 are still pending. Congressional Apportionment Amendment (1789), was proposed as a means to ensure a minimum representation for the common people in the bew U.S. government. The Titles of Nobility Amendment (1810), would strip U.S.. citizenship from any citizen who accepted a title of nobility from a foreign country. The Corwin Amendment (1861), would forbid subsequent attempts to amend the Constitution to empower Congress to “abolish or interfere” with the “domestic institutions ” of the states, including persons held to labor or service (slavery). The Child Labor Amendment (1924), would regulate labor if persons under the age of 18. Interest in this amendment waned following The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, which implemented federal regulations of child labor with the Supreme Court approval in 1941.

             The 2 which expired included the Equal Rights Amendment (1972), was designed to give equal rights to women. The ERA was originall written by Alice Paul in 1923. In 1972 it passed both houses and went to states for ratification, it never recieved enough votes and expired in 1982. The District of Columbia Voting Rights Amendment (1978), would have given the District of Columbia full representation in the U.S. congress, full representation in the Electoral College System, it expired on Aug. 22, 1985.

                  Some say it is to hard to ratify the Constitution, if course others disagree. You need 290 member of the House, 67 Senators, both houses of the state legislatures in 38 states. Given our political climate this is close to impossible. But the writers of our Constitution wanted it to be easy to consider changes, yet want them to carefully considered. They want to make sure the amendment had the full support of the nation, therefore it is more difficult to ratify. Another arguement could be that they didnt anticipate the size and population of our country while writing this.

               It some cases this is a good thing, like when the Republican party tried to amend the Constitution to keep homosexuals from getting married. It didnt have enough support so it never happened. Now states are letting LGBT couples get married, some not all. The Democrats helped stop that amendment from happening. But as the political climate changes in our country maybe we will see more ratifications. I hoppe we do, some changes need to be made and the Constitution might be the place to start. I got alot of information on amending the Constitition from Wikipedia, if you are interested in more information. Thank you.

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